The following practice shows that lying and rejection of guilt by criminals are associated with various physiological phenomena. Before that, this is an increase in the pressure of the blood, a change in the moisture of the skin, as well as inadequate swallowing of saliva, as well as little moisture. These phenomena were used by physiologists and psychologists to develop a polygraph or a “lie detector”. The first experiences in this direction were started in the 90s of the last century, modern electronic facilities allow for a correct assessment of the results in 85 and more so.
"Detektop lies" coctoit of komplekta chyvctvitelnyx izmepitelnyx ppibopov, podklyuchennyx to cledyyuschim datchikam: elactichnomy bpaclety, zakpeplyaemomy vyshe loktya, dayuschemy nA podvizhnoi lente Rec Change The pylca and davleniya, cictemy, pazmeschaemoi nA ypovne gpydi for pepedachi and RECORDING pitma dyxaniya and elektponnogo yctpoictva for MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS OF CHANGE OF SKIN, ELECTRODES OF A SHORT, which have the appearance of bracelets, are fixed on the hands of a pic of the face. The speed of movement of the paper tape when recording is 160 mm per minute.
The study is based on a series of questions, which should be given a type of "yes" - "no" (indicated on the schedule + or -). First, it is necessary to keep the subjects open to separate the normal “innocent” section, to prevent any disturbance. This is shown in Figure. one.
The extractive audit of the reactions of this person is an experience with playing cards. They show 10 different cards and offer to remember one of them, and then, transferring them, they disconnect the other from the other. Asking for this should be done at any time to say “no, ” that is. One time he lies. This is secured by recording and is suitable for the correct decryption of further recordings. So basically the work of a lie detector looks like, which in many many cases makes it possible to distinguish the main guilty, servicemen and those who knew about the trouble. However, only one of the results of the decryption of the recorded lie detector cannot be proved as guilty of accusation of crime. Not less than in the United States, 19 major hacked organs (including apmiya, police and FBR), which are also in 1964, are used by lie detectors. We have 512 similar devices. Throughout the year, with the help of lie detectors, up to 20, 000 people are investigated. Many of these devices are used in private companies, for example, in a bank. The integrity of the bank has been checked regularly with the help of lie detectors. The company manufacturing the lie detectors will not allow a full-time customer service clerk, which will support the detectors. It includes psychology, law and other matters.
The simplified lie detector (Fig. 2) has such a high degree of sensitivity that, as the case may be, it should be considered only slightly. Here are some indications of the sample (in micro-dimensions) in response to expressions, stimulating emotions and indifferent: whole - 73, love - 59, love - 58; carrot - 18, flower - 16, pencil - 15. Designations: A - to the electrodes, B - to the recording device, etc.
Two electrodes (Fig. 3), which take the form of a closed loop from a non-insulated wire, are fixed to pyki or to the rest. In the first case, greater sensitivity is ensured, but at the same time it may have a place in addition, caused by the movements of the brush pic. If this is the case, then the electrodes must be secured to the wrist. If the integrity is poor, the odds between each two or three loops are parallel. The hinges are attached to the rubber or rubber bands or simply to the strap. The electrodes can be secured and on the legs.
The maintenance of leather, which under common conditions can be 3 ... 100 kOhm, is influenced by excitation being changed by 5%. The device will give information about this through 1.7 ... 2.4 after the exposure to the light, sound or pain signal.
The sensitivity of the device (Fig. 2) is regulated by a variable resistor R1. To the output clamps, besides the galvanometer, it is possible to connect the tape recorder. You can also add an optional power amplifier with a relay or an optional mechanism, or connect all devices to the input of the radio system. Resistors R are for protection of transformers only from shutdown and short-circuiting while the system is on or at the same time as the power is turned on.
The sample can also be found in other applications, for example, in the case of studies of the process with an ohmic sensor at a short distance.
At the end of the test, it is possible to carry out amusing experiments (measuring temperature, sensitivity, love). At the fingertips of the partner and partners, they strengthen the spring metal clips. At the same time, the aim is rejected by the shooter, touching the other test result is different.
Before experimenting with the appliance as a lie detector, you must carry out a zero setting. The clip must be fixed for this. It is desirable to have the appliance with double-sided screens.
As you know, mental activity is closely related to various physiological processes. With excitement in humans, the amplitude and frequency of the heartbeat and respiration, blood pressure, salivation and so on changes. The skin resistance changes especially noticeably - after 1 ... 2 s after an exciting question, memory, pain, light, sound exposure, skin resistance changes by several percent. The device reliably records this change in resistance even when using the simplest sensors (two contact plates worn on the fingers of one hand). A feature of the device is a weak response to interference caused by finger movement.
Having fixed the sensors at the tips of any two fingers of one hand and turned on the device, you need to wait 5 ... 10 s until the transition process ends and both LEDs go out. The subject should sit comfortably with his hand resting and relaxed. For success it is very important that the hand with the sensors is warm. After each question asked to the subject, you need to pause for 2 ... 3 s until the indicator goes out completely. If the indicator flashes from any questions, you need to reduce the sensitivity with the regulator or just calm down a little. As a workout, you can invite the subject to remember one of several playing cards, and then, having shuffled, show them one at a time, asking if this card is intended. The test subject must answer no in all cases. In one case, the device must fix the false. Another option is that various words are slowly pronounced, the names of acquaintances and the like, and the subject silently reacts to some words more strongly, which is also recorded. Thus it is possible to find out the addictions and dislikes of the subject. It should be remembered that the reliability of detection is not one hundred percent, novice subjects are very worried, and experienced ones can cause excitement and distort the result at the right time with the willpower. The reliability of lie detection is higher if the subject does not see the indicator.
The device is assembled on a single-sided printed circuit board (Fig. 3). As a case, you can use a small soap dish. Food - from the "Crown" or "Corundum". Capacitors C1, C5, C6 - any ceramic, the rest - type K50-6. Resistor R - type SPZ-1B or, with some change in the board, any small. Transistor VT1 - any pnp (KTZ15, KTZ12, MP37), and VT2 - any pnp (KT361, KT209, MP42). LEDs HL1, HL2 - type AL307, AL102, etc. The device assembled from serviceable parts does not require adjustment.